Random number generation with untrusted quantum devices
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Is it possible to create a source of provable random numbers? An affirmative answer to this question would be of great importance in information security, where the safety of encryption schemes relies depends on the ability to generate random keys. Quantum technology is in a unique position to help address this problem, because quantum measurements are intrinsically random: no amount of prior knowledge can allow an adversary to predict the outcome. Turning this simple principle into a full protocol for random number generation — one that is provable based on minimal assumptions — is a complex problem that motivates some interesting mathematics.
In this talk I will present work by Yaoyun Shi and myself which gave the first error-tolerant proof of randomness expansion from untrusted quantum devices. I will present our newest results, discuss some of the basic principles from quantum information that underlie the proofs, and then finish with some open problems.